The First Mile (Latest Blog)
Tweet“For the world’s more full of weeping than you can understand” Humans can walk at an average speed of 5kph. Apparently, we have been walking this way for 1.5 million … Continue reading →
Water, water, everywhere
TweetWater, water, every where, And all the boards did shrink; Water, water, every where, Nor any drop to drink. The Rime of the Ancient Mariner by Samuel Taylor Coleridge 1. … Continue reading →
It’s a gas!
TweetWhy every village, town and community should have its own biogas facility! Biogas technology is very advanced in scientific and engineering terms in Europe. It bears little resemblence to domestic … Continue reading →
- The First Mile (Latest Blog)
TweetThere are many technologies which claim to be alternative, eco-friendly, alternative or bio. True alternative energy means an energy which we can put to useful purpose, which originates from an indefinitely renewable resource and which does not emit greater pollutants … Continue reading
TweetAll energy, regardless of its origin is a valuable resource. Its waste means inevitable replacement and possible depletion of Planet resources. From cars to fridges, passive homes to farms, energy can be used with greater efficiency.
TweetObvious but very important in the environmental sector is independence to act, think, criticise and support ‘true alternative energy production’ and ’true energy conservation’ technologies. Without Government or Academic funding Terraintegra is free of sponsorship and has no hidden agenda.
TweetSocio-environmentalism is concerned with the interrelationship between society and its surrounding environment. Terraintegra seeks to promote harmonic inter-reaction between a society and its environment by promoting socio-environmental solutions. Society needs energy, food, water and enjoyment from its environment. The environment … Continue reading
TweetTerraintegra describes a technology as being energy positive when, taking all relevant factors into account, the energy output does not deplete planet resources or increase planet stress. A biofuel like ethanol may not be energy positive if it consumes fossil … Continue reading
TweetEquilibrium describes the maintaining of a balance between opposing forces and needs. The Planet maintains an environmental equilibrium between incoming solar energy and its eco-system’s energy consumption. A change to this equilibrium can only be incremental so as to allow … Continue reading
TweetNameplate (or Nominal) capacity describes the maximum output of an energy producing technology. Most technologies are described in terms of nameplate capacity. However, Nameplate Capacity can cause confusion and at times be misleading. This is especially true when describing alternative … Continue reading
TweetCapacity factor gives the ratio of the actual output of an energy production technology over a period of time as against its output if it had operated at full its full nameplate capacity constantly. Capacity factor is calculated by dividing … Continue reading
TweetTerraintegra’s use of the word “efficient” or “efficiency” describes the conversion efficiency of energy. This can be described as the ratio between the useful production of a technology as against its required energy input. The useful output may be mechanical … Continue reading
TweetAt its simplest electricity is an energy. It is useful to civilisation because it can be efficiently generated, transferred long distances, subdivided and used to power a myriad of machines. It is created by expending another energy (e.g. steam, solar … Continue reading
TweetAlmost all of the Planet’s electric power is produced by rotating electrical machines. Electric machines are electromechanical energy converters. Generators convert mechanical energy into electrical energy and motors convert electrical energy into mechanical energy. Approximately 70% of electrical energy is … Continue reading
TweetApproximately 18,000 terawatt-hours (TWh) per annum. It is anticipated that electricity demand will double in the next 20 years to a yearly demand of over 32,000 TWh. The really important question therefore is how will we generate this increased electricity?
TweetAt least 35% of all Planet tapped primary energy is converted into electricity. Among Developed Nations an average of 42% of all primary energy is converted into electricity. Coal is used to generate about 40% of Planet electricity and its … Continue reading
TweetAlternative energy generation technologies comprise the use of wind, water, biogas, the sea and possibly geothermal heat to generate electrical energy. All these technologies no matter how micro, definitively replace the use of fossil fuels (coal and oil) to generate … Continue reading
TweetAlternative fuels replace some fossil fuels in our transport system. Bio-fuels are ethanol, biodiesel, biogas and others. They use fossil energy in their production, contribute to carbon footprint and require vast land areas and water to grow raw materials. Their … Continue reading
TweetAlternative engines both improve upon current ICE designs while continuing to use fossil fuels, biofuels or both. Several designs are in development which seek to improve on thermal energy. In parallel, the engine combustion process is being rethought with catalysts … Continue reading
TweetElectric propulsion (i.e. electric motor) technology, is set to become the engine to replace all engines. Electric motor technologies consequently constitute a unique, quickly evolving and separate division of the whole alternative energy sector.
TweetStorage of energy. Energy generated by alternative sources is difficult to store. Batteries, stored water, air and heat can all be used to store energy for future use. Fuel cells struggle to overcome high costs. While the size and complexity … Continue reading
TweetConservation of energy and resources. To reduce planet energy consumption, it is essential to reduce the energy requirement of its occupants. Buildings must be redesigned to lower energy requirements. Transport systems must be redeveloped to improve efficiencies.
TweetThe splitting of atoms (fission) releases vast amounts of thermal energy which can be used to boil liquid to expand as steam, turn a turbine which in turn rotates a generator to generate electricity. Nuclear energy meets 16% of electricity … Continue reading
TweetThe US consumes about 23% of World electricity. China consumes about 17% with Russia and Japan consuming about 5.7% each. All the countries of the EU combined consume about 17% of World electricity. A more meaningful figure is consumption per … Continue reading
Were we to use all the alternative energy available today, would it be enough to meet our energy needs?
TweetThe short answer is yes! We have available over 120 petawatts at least 8,000 times the energy we require to meet our needs. The solar constant (i.e. all solar radiation has been calculated at 1,366 watts per M2. Africa has tapped … Continue reading
TweetYes! Achieving efficiency in production, conversion, transportation, subdivision and storage of energy is the key to Planet survivability. A coal fired power plant will transfer about 35% of the coal’s energy into electricity. Then about 10% of the surviving electricity … Continue reading