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Water, water, everywhere

Posted on: 8th September 2011

Water, water, every where, And all the boards did shrink; Water, water, every where, Nor any drop to drink.

The Rime of the Ancient Mariner by Samuel Taylor Coleridge

1. Introduction

Water is life. With sunlight and water in equilibrium human civilisation manages to thrive on Earth. Today we are experiencing a change of climate and a simultaneous depletion of our water and consequently our food resources. The Planet’s climate has changed before. There have been ice ages, tropical periods and medieval freezes. But, until now, human activity was not responsible, the Planet recovered its equilibrium. Until now the Planet did not support 7 billion people.

The Planet is moving out of equilibrium. Sea levels are rising incrementally, drowning low lying areas, beginning with Pacific coral islands. Well drenched areas (e.g Western Europe, Bangladesh) are experiencing increased rainfall. Dry regions (e.g. Australia, India, East Africa and China) are getting drier. “The the percentage of Earth’s land area stricken by serious drought more than doubled from the 1970s to the early 2000s” National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). The World’s major rivers, the Yangtze, the Ganges and the Salween in Asia; the Danube in Europe and Rio Grande in North America are drying up (WWF report). Perversely, when rains do visit, the parched land is unable to recover. The rain water runs away on the hardened surface carrying the vestiges of the naked soil’s nutrition with it.

Dams, dikes, and the expanding extraction of water for human use (industry and agriculture) are major causes of localised drought. Active extraction of water, as in the Indus river, High Plains Aquifer and the Murray Darling basin takes its toll. Bangladesh, Burma, Laos, Cambodia, India, Thailand and Vietnam all accuse China of taking water from their farms and villages to fill its hydroelectric dams. Water conflicts are becoming more prevalent. See The Middle East is a water flashpoint simply because 5% of the World’s population must share 1% of the World’s potable water.

In the Kapit region of Borneo, Malaysia, villages are deprived of water because it has been diverted to the Bakun hydro-electricity dam (whose lake sits atop 7002km of sunken tropical forest) to supply a questionable electricity need on the Malaysian Peninsula. This causes drought and also prevents transport along the now drying riverbeds. Schools will remain closed as they have no water. A whole society is under threat because of an energy need hundreds of kilometres away.

Drought never travels alone. Hunger, disease, malnutrition, reduced productivity and conflict accompany it. Rain failures have again impacted the lives of 12 million people in the Horn of Africa. Famine is spreading as crops fail. People and animals die in their thousands for want of water and food. Where water is scarce, it is also usually of poor quality. Diarrhoeal diseases morbidly infect over 1 billion people and kill over 3.3 million people each year. See More than 80% of Ethiopians live in rural regions, where 24% of the population can access drinking water. Women in water deprived areas, on average, walk 6km and carry approximately 20 litres (20kg) of water to their families per day. At least “40 billion work hours are lost each year in Africa specifically to the long-distance gathering of drinking water,” WHO.

2. Today’s Approach

The almost universal response to the depletion of life supporting water is conventional and wrong. Societies consume the World’s fresh water reserves to supply increasing agricultural, industrial and transport energy needs, in addition to sustaining the Planet’s growing population. The fallacy is obvious but ignored. About 14% of the World’s total corn production is used to make ethanol. Lester Brown of the Earth Policy Institute calculates that one person could be fed for an entire year on the amount of grain used to fill a 25-gallon (95 Litres) SUV gas tank with ethanol. More crucially, that ethanol tank consumed 456,000 litres of water while it grew as corn. Ethanol production is concentrated in regions with little water to spare, principally the USA, Europe and China. Finally, trust in biofuel alternatives appears to have been misplaced. The net result after a decade of expanding biofuel production is minimal or no carbon gain, food cost increases, aquifer depletion, river pollution, estuary dead zones, low level ozone, accelerated deforestation and people displacement. Biofuels are an expensive drive up a “cul de sac”.

And, so back to basics

3. What the World Needs Now is…..

3. a) Food

Humans consume an average of 2,700 Calories per person per day. Admittedly some societies and individuals consume more than others. Agronomists calculate that at least 0.5 hectares of arable land per person are needed for a productive agriculture which produces a varied diet of plant and animal products. The CIA World Factbook states that the World’s arable land today comprises about 1.6 billion hectares. With a planet population of 7 billion, that equates to 0.23 hectares per person. The World’s population is expected to reach 9 billion by 2050. The U.N. reports that nearly 800 million people are undernourished. About 400 million women of childbearing age are iron deficient, exposing their babies to numerous birth defects. 100 million children suffer from vitamin A deficiency, a leading cause of blindness. Clearly, the World is not enough. India has enough arable land to provide each person in the country with approximately 0.2 hectares or less than half of the recommended average. In Ethiopia, each person could have 0.3 hectares of arable land if drought and conflict were overcome. The USA has about 0.85 hectares of arable land per person, more than it needs for food alone but not enough to support a bio-fuel industry in addition. The US, the World’s leading corn exporter (62% of world exports of corn in 2007) has already begun to cut back its corn exports, the corn is sold instead to US ethanol producers. By 2009, thanks to Bush era subsidies (US$6 billion annually), 25% or 104 million tonnes, of US corn was diverted to ethanol production. That year the number of people officially starving exceed 1 billion for the first time. The Earth Policy Institute calculates that the US corn diverted to ethanol annually could feed “feed 330 million people for one year at average world consumption levels”.

3. b) Water

We need more water than we think. All land based animals, including humans, plants and crops must have access to fresh or potable water. A loss of more than 2.5% of body weight due to dehydration corresponds to a 25% loss of functioning efficiency. Dehydration causes blood to become thicker and have less volume. The heart must work harder to pump blood. In a critical situation, losing 25% of physical and mental abilities can be fatal.

Hydrologists consider 2,650 litres of water per day (including water for adequate food production) to be the minimal per person requirement for human needs. Most crops require at least 1,000 litres of water per kilogram of product. Rice requires about 2,000 litres per kilogram. A kilogram of wheat consumes 1,350 litres of water. It takes from 15,000 to 70,000 litres of water, to produce one kilogram of beef. An average Australian barbecue represents several hundred thousand litres of consumed water, not including the swimming pool and the beer. In short, we need a lot of fresh potable water.

Climate change is universal. Australian farmers have been forced to abandon their farms. Droughts in the USA and Australia have impacted aquifer reserves which in turn intensify drought impact. Meanwhile farmers drill ever deeper to source water for corn and soya bean production. Artesian wells either dry up or become saline. But, this pales beside the misery of drought in developing and under developed regions. Today 1.1 billion people (15% of World population) have no access to safe drinking water. About 2.6 billion people (37% of World total) lack access to basic sanitation. Almost all of Africa suffers from inadequate water quantity and quality. From Africa to China droughts cause starvation, force migration, cause conflict, damage health, slow societal progress and punish the most vulnerable everywhere. Ultimately, where climate change is most keenly felt, i.e. Kenya, Sudan, Palestine, India and Pakistan among others, the people and their governments lack the resources, political will and skills to implement resolutions. This predicament will intensify as the anticipated World population iapproaches 9 billion by 2050. Most of this increase will be located predominately in water deprived regions.

The drive to biofuels exacerbates World water problems. About 4,800 litres of water is consumed to produce one litre of ethanol. Canola (genetically modified rape seed) consumes 1,700 litres of water to yield one litre of biodiesel. In addition, 0.4 hectares are required to grow enough corn or wheat to produce 1MT ethanol while one hectare is required to grow 1MT bio-diesel. Electric vehicles, if they gain viable market share, in addition to reducing emissions, can help prevent ongoing environmental damage by bio-fuel producers.

4. An Alternative and Contrarian Approach

Before any type of food can be produced, water must be available. It is even possible to grow food without earth but not without water. Societies have abused and destroyed their water resources. While very little water is permanently removed from circulation (i.e. it is not consumed in the same manner as oil, coal or gas), human activity does cause the flux of water from a potable state to a non potable state, effectively depleting the volume of potable water. Pumping well water to irrigate grain and crops depletes aquifers, the plant absorbed water is used to grow the plant, which is then ingested, surplus water simply flows to the sea. Depleted aquifers are more vulnerable to ingress of saline water and polluted water. Using nitrogens to fertilise crops and grains, pollutes ground water and rivers, killing marine life and altering eco-systems. See

The single resource that humans have minimally exploited is seawater. While human activity has destroyed ocean ecosystems, made the Irish Sea radioactive and depleted ocean life, the water itself, in volume terms exceeds human capacity to destroy. If the planet is to support up to 9 billion people, wide-scale desalination and purification of seawater (and other non potable water) must commence soon.

4. a) The Seven Seas

While the seas have been plundered for food and energy and used as a dumping ground for waste, their most precious resource remains largely un-exploited by humans. The seas cover 70% of the Earth’s surface and hold over 97.5% of its water. Even where drought is is at its worst, the ocean is at most hours away by motorised transport. Only 2.5% of the planet’s water is fresh water, about 70% of which is frozen in the ice caps of Antarctica and Greenland. Most of the remainder exists in soil moisture, or in deep underground aquifers not accessible to humans. Less than 1% of the World’s fresh water (0.007% of all water on the planet) is accessible to humans, land animals and cultivated crops.

Global desalination processes today provide less than 0.1% of all drinking water for humans, animals and flora. Even a substantial desalination programme would have little or no impact on saltwater reserves. Castro and Huber (in their book Marine Biology) state that salt comprises only 3.5% of seawater. Salt is a general term for a number of useful chemicals, including Chloride (55%) and Sodium (31%). Other interesting elements found in seawater include Sulfate (7.7%), Magnesium (3.7%) Calcium and Potassium each comprising just over one percent of salts.

Having repeatedly landed people on the Moon, put exploratory craft on Mars and circled Saturn, the Earth’s people have the capacity and are belatedly finding the motivation, to address urgent Earth bound requirement for potable water. Desalination technologies are advancing. Capital costs remain stubbornly high and the energy required to operate a desalination plant is prohibitive in most of the regions where water is in short supply.

And, what use is desalinated water if it cannot reach or be afforded by the people of Kenya, Somalia or Ethiopia? Yes desalination and water transport will cost money and involve political risks. But the costs have not been evaluated and quantified against the urgent human need. The transport of oil and gas over thousands of kilometres on land and undersea by pipeline and ship is accepted as a normal and necessary. Research shows that the costs of desalination and transport can be achieved at lower cost and less environmental impact than any oil or gas recovery and transport. More importantly, the capital costs of desalination and water transport can be dramatically reduced by employing new technologies and processes which work with the natural environment, not against it.

4. b) Technologies

Commercialised desalination is a complex and expensive process. The two dominant technologies are summarised as follows:-

4. b) (i) Thermal Distillation

Variations include Multi-Stage Flash Distillation (MSF), Multi-Effect Distillation (MED) or Vapour Compression Distillation (VCD). Distillation is achieved by phase separation. Water is heated to produce water vapour. The vapour evaporates, leaving salt and unwanted materials behind and is then condensed to freshwater. Generally the water is tanked in a partial vacuum to make the water boil at temperatures below normal boiling point. This effectively saves energy. Energy is also saved by interchanging the heat of condensation and heat of vaporisation within the system. A lot of energy (electricity) is used to heat the feed-water to make it vaporise.

Distillation is a very reliable process. There are relatively few moving parts. The purity of the water is consistent with no decrease in quality over time. Capital costs are very high.

4. b) (ii) Membrane Desalination

Membrane Desalination includes Electrodialyis (ED), Electrodialysis Reversal (EDR), and Reverse Osmosis (RO). In the standard Reverse Osmosis (RO) process, pressurised saline water is forced through a permeable membrane which separates pure water from salts, metals and other materials. Passage of water through the membrane is helped by the creation of a pressure differential between the feed-in side and the out-flow side of the system. The remaining feed-water is diverted from the pressurised side of the system as brine and disposed of. No heating or phase change takes place. Substantial energy is used to pressurise the feed-water. For brackish water desalination the operating pressures range from 250 to 400 psi, and for seawater desalination from 800 to 1,000 psi. Today 60% of desalination plants use RO technology. RO systems are cheaper to build than distillation systems and are more versatile but maintenance is higher and plant life can be short.

4. c) Issues and Problems with Traditional Desalination Technologies

Desalination is not a panacea.

4. c) (i) Capital and Maintenance Costs

While local geographic and climate conditions affect capital costs, they are generally high. Maintenance costs include electricity (64% of maintenance costs), chemicals, membrane replacement and labour. Repairing the corrosive impact of seawater and unclogging filters and membranes is a permanent requirement. Membranes in particular are subject to contamination and easily damaged. Site-specific factors, e.g. plant capacity, energy sources and the salt and other material content of the feed-water impact on costs.

4. c) (ii) Energy Costs

Both traditional desalination processes are energy intensive, requiring upwards of 4.5kW per cubic metre of water produced. Plants generally are land based and occupy substantial real estate. Desalination plants have short lives and equalisation costs are unattractive. While many considerations have an impact, seawater desalination can cost upwards from €1.50 per 1,000 litres. This may seem moderate but fresh or potable water is not simply required for humans to drink. It must also feed animals and crops, provide sanitary washing and laundering, clean industrial equipment, e.t.c.

4. c) (iii) Brine Disposal

The residue of all desalination processes is brine, a dense salty liquid. Brine volumes can exceed the freshwater volumes produced. Brine is hostile to most life forms including humans. It is corrosive and will destroy natural habitats. Normally, brine must be taken out into deep water and dumped, where the sea will reclaim it and dilute it to its former density of seawater. Brine disposal is a necessary part of desalination in large commercial plants where huge volumes of water are treated. Some brine is disposed of in coastal waters, often with harmful outcomes.

A strategy to build a series of small desalination plants spread along a shoreline would diminish the problem. Additionally, a parallel business to collect and process salt and other brine material would avoid accumulation of salts and materials in local waters.

4. c) (iv) Desalinated Water and Corrosiveness

Desalinated water is usually also de-mineralised. Distribution via pipes and storage tanks is restricted because the water will leach metals and other materials from pipes and other plumbing materials. Desalinated water corrodes concrete and metals in general (e.g. iron distribution pipes). Accelerated corrosion will reduce life of distribution infrastructure. Dissolved miscellaneous metal ions and particles are absorbed by the water, reducing its quality.

4.  c) (v) Desalinated Water and Health

Desalination produces water lacking calcium, magnesium and other minerals. Without minerals, water has poor taste and thirst-quenching characteristics. Magnesium, calcium and other minerals should be reintroduced to desalinated water. Magnesium, in particular is costly to reintroduce. WHO publishes guidelines which recommend adding Magnesium and Calcium to desalinated water. Magnesium in water is essential to combat Magnesium deficiency in humans.

Studies conducted on human volunteers by the WHO (1980) concluded that the consumption of low mineral water increased diuresis (by 20%). Other symptoms observed by WHO included increased water retained by body, increased serum sodium concentrations, decreased serum potassium concentration, increased sodium elimination. Other research has flagged, slower physical development, growth abnormalities and increased levels of bone fracture in children (Verd Vallespir et al.1992), pre term birth and low weight at birth (Yang Ch.Y. et al. 2002).

4. c) (vi) Boron (boric acid)

Boron in seawater is proportional to salinity and averages about 5 mg/l. While RO membranes will successfully block charged particles (e.g. borate ion) they are less effective with neutral molecules like boron (efficiency is between 75% and 90% and 95% with special purpose membranes). WHO recommends that drinking water contain less than 0.5 mg/l boron. About 5 grams of boron if ingested, will cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea and blood clotting. Over 20 grams can be lethal. Boron irritates skin and eyes. Even showering in boron water can be dangerous. Boron may also be a factor causing arthritis.

Seawater with high salinity will have a correspondingly high boron content. Hot climates (e.g. the Persian Gulf, the Red Sea, the Eastern Mediterranean Sea and the Caribbean Sea. At high water temperatures (e.g. 30oC) boron removal is less effective. A specific boron removal process is necessary. This usually involves special filters.

5. Solutions

5. a) Solar desalination and purification

The deployment of desalination technologies is becoming increasingly urgent. Desalination must be made affordable to the poorest countries. The energy requirement to operate desalination plants must be minimal as villages and communities in the poorest countries have neither access to water nor electrical energy. The most practical solution is the employment of solar desalination technology which has finally come of age. The advantages of solar desalination are high efficiency, low or no energy consumption and low capital and maintenance cost.

In larger population centres and in areas with no potable water access, low cost solar desalination technology can be deployed. This will clean large volumes of water (both saline and contaminated, e.g. Arsenic in Bangladeshi water supply). Solar desalination (land based) will use less than 1.5kW electricity per m3 pure water whereas reverse osmosis systems require in excess of 4.5kW per m3 water. Solar desalination systems (land based) can be installed at a cost of less than €750,000 and will purify in excess of 230,000 litres of water per day. Larger ocean based solar desalination systems will use no electricity and can effectively supply a whole city’s water needs. Water production costs are about €0.11 per m3 for the land based system and about €0.06 per m3 for the sea based system

The much larger sea based systems (designed but not built) will cost up to €50 million for a city supply system producing 500 million litres potable water per day. These costs will still be substantially lower than a reverse osmosis system and will require no external electricity supply. The system can in fact be a net producer of electricity. As it is sea based (½ hectare) the sea based system will not require much expensive coastal real-estate.

5. b) Other Water Recovery Technologies

At a much smaller scale water can be recovered from the surrounding air. Even in hot arid areas, the air often contains recoverable water as moisture in humid air. In the Atacama Desert, villagers set down huge nets along hills which trap the fog that sweeps across the desert. The fog condenses and falls into troughs and then runs through pipes that lead down to the villages below.

Some researches argue that the relentless advance of the deserts could be halted and even reversed by the capture and grounding of airborne moisture. See

Several companies have developed methods to improve on the desert nets. Some use chemicals to attract water vapour. Others use wind turbines to suck in the air, condense it and extract potable water. See The costs of these technologies vary but the viability of several water recovery technologies has been established.

Other interesting, but as yet unproven, solutions have been proposed. Prof. Steven Salter (inventor of the World’s first wave energy technology called “Salter’s Ducks”) has proposed the use of wind turbines to literally spray sea water into the air when an onshore wind blows. As the water is sprayed upwards, the salt crystals fall back into the sea. The water, now vaporised is carried by winds over barren and desert lands. It encourages existing moisture to fall to earth and adds to moisture in low floating air, which is absorbed by trees and plants. The costs of testing this proposal are not prohibitive.

Research and development in seeking solutions to water shortages, outside the borders of rich countries, is minimal. Several water recovery and conservation technologies and processes deserve implementation but languish on scientists desks or in inventors’ garages.

5. c) Water Transport

Assuming that water has been recovered and purified or located in reservoirs, it must be transported to where it can be used by humans, animals and plants. Water can be transported along canals for about €0.06 per m3 per 100kM. Piped water transport will cost over €0.20 m3 per 100kM. Horizontal transfer of water is not energy intensive. Elevating water over hills and mountains is. It is understood that it will cost ten times more to lift water 100 metres than transport it horizontally 100 kilometres. Water is already transported hundreds of kilometres by pipeline in the USA, Europe, Saudi Arabia and Australia. Water transport is taken for granted in rich countries.

In poor countries, water is carried for several kilometres every day in 20 litre containers by women and children. Simple transport machines (e.g. purpose built, low cost, electric tractors) could obviate this. Even if water cannot be found locally, solar desalination plants can be deployed at coastal sites and at contaminated water sources inland. Much of Darfur lies at about 600m above sea level. The overland route to the coast is about 500km. Water can easily be piped or moved by canal (with the added advantage of building a water transport system) that distance. To reduce water transport and lifting costs, low maintenance wind turbines and CSP systems can be installed at elevation changing stations. The South African developed “Concrete Hard Road” technology can be utilised to build weather proof heavy transport resistant roads, canals, rail track and storage pools at low cost.

In emergency situations, where thousands of people and animals are dying of drought, the Road/Rail hybrid technology BladeRunner ( could be deployed to deliver huge payloads of emergency water and food supplies. The BladeRunner can use existing rail and road to transport large volumes of water (75 m3 per transporter) or 100 tonnes of food to points of urgent need at speeds of up to 100kph. The BladeRunner can also transport animals, people and goods along road and on varying rail gauge tracks, facilitating transport to and from all African countries. In the longer term the BladeRunner will prove to be the ideal transport vehicle for all Africa. It requires no points, sleepers or ballast. Track can be laid at a fraction of the costs associated with today’s rail systems and where there is no track, BladeRunner can drive on roads or tracks.

5. d) Water Storage

When water is recovered and stored, it has a limited shelf life. Bacteria and algae quickly predate on still water. The World Health Organization (WHO) states that up to 80% of all diseases and 33% of deaths in poor countries are caused by the consumption of contaminated water. On average, 10% of human productiveness is lost to water-related diseases. Diarrhoeal diseases are a primary cause of morbidity and mortality in infants and young children in poor countries. WHO estimates that 1.8 billion episodes of childhood diarrhoea occur annually, mostly in poor countries leading to the deaths of 3 million children and 1 million adults every year.

Disinfecting and keeping water potable is essential to reduce disease and save lives. The more common methods are:

5. d) (i) Chlorination

Chlorination has been used to disinfect water in many countries for many decades. Disinfection by chlorination can be problematic, in some circumstances. Chlorine can react with naturally occurring organic compounds found in the water supply to produce compounds known as disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Common DBPs are trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs). Because of the carcinogen potential of THMs and HAAs, health authorities in rich countries mandate regular monitoring of their concentration in municipal water systems. The World Health Organization has stated that the “Risks to health from DBPs are extremely small in comparison with inadequate disinfection.” This approach is best understood as a recommendation of the least harmful, lowest cost, known solution rather than wholesome endorsement of chlorination of drinking water.

The long term deployment of chlorine has led to the evolution of chlorine tolerant pathogens. Higher levels of chlorination are required to regain precedence.

In the 1990s the Iowa Women’s Health Study undertook an extensive project and monitored 28,237 post-menopausal women. The results, were published in 1997 by Timothy Doyle et al, the Division of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota. They provided conclusive evidence that women who lived in communities with higher levels of chloroform (a THM) in drinking water, were at “significantly increased risk of cancer, particularly colon cancer”.

In 2000 at Imperial College London a group of statisticians, led by Mark Nieuwenhuijsen, “reviewed relevant toxicological and epidemiological evidence on the potential role of chlorination by-products in the induction of adverse reproductive effects. Effects that have been associated with chlorination by-products include spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, reduced birth weight and survival, developmental disabilities and congenital malformations of the cardiovascular and neurological systems (e.g. neural tube defects such as spina bifida).” .. “ exposures from showers, baths, drinking water, drinks and foods caused significant absorption of chlorination by-products and these may contribute to increased risk of a diverse range of adverse reproductive effects.” The report does say that the results are inconclusive and sometimes contradictory.

5. d)  (ii) Similar to reverse osmosis desalination processes, micro membrane filtration processes can purify small volumes of drinking water. They are expensive and most require both electrical energy and maintenance.

5. d) (iii) Sand filtration is a simple process where water is allowed to percolate through layers of sand which filters out contaminants.

5 d) (iv) A recent project reliably demonstrated the purification of water by pouring it through ground banana skins. Several other processes both traditional and modern can be employed with varying degrees of effectiveness.

5. d) (v) Ozone disinfection is widely used in Europe and is effective though it can produce bromate, a suspected carcinogen.

5. d) (vi) Ultraviolet light is an effective disinfection process. Both Ozone and Ultraviolet treatments consume energy, are not long lasting and must be repeated or the water must be kept pure by adding a chemical treatment in the water.

5. d) (vii) Another way

A South African invention, Aqua Salveo ( has been proven to purify and keep water contamination free for months. Aqua Salveo purifies water without introducing chlorine or any other harmful chemicals into the water. It is tasteless. Tiny mounts can disinfect thousands of litres in an hour. Little or no energy is required to administer it. Its ingredients are the ions of silver, zinc and copper. These are generally beneficial to the human body. Its benign effect, low cost and ability to purify large volumes of water make it suited to treat village, municipal, hospital, school, farm and other water supply systems.

Crops, fruits, meats and flowers can all be sprayed with Aqua Salveo and they will stay fresh for longer without any chemical treatment. It has been certified by South African Bureau of Standards (SABS) to be effective in eliminating the most dangerous pathogens, including E.Coli, Cholera, Streptococci, Dysentery, Candida, e.t.c. It is particularly useful as a drinkable treatment to destroy ingested pathogens. It has also been demonstrated, in South America, to have the ability to kill parasites in rice grains while they are growing, substantially improving the rice yield.

Aqua Salveo has a role as a disinfectant in a desalination, water transportation and storage solution.

6. Summary

This blog has about 4,900 words. While you have been reading (assume it took 15 minutes), about 60 people died of a water deficiency or disease. 54 of them were children.

Drought and Famine can be overcome. Where there is a will there is a way.

Water is life. Is some life more valuable because of geography and climate?

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